From the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Taohe River in the south along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of Mongolian steppe.
Ming army’s Defeat
The Chinese were already familiar with the techniques of wall-building by the time of the Spring and Autumn period between the 8th and 5th centuries BC.
The Great Wall concept was revived again under the Ming in the 14th century, and following the Ming army’s defeat by the Oirats in the Battle of Tumu. The Ming had failed to gain a clear upper hand over the Mongolian tribes after successive battles, and the long-drawn conflict was taking a toll on the empire. The Ming adopted a new strategy to keep the nomadic tribes out by constructing walls along the northern border of China.
Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration. Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.
The Great Wall in 1907 Image wikipedia.
The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day Sino–Russian border in the north to Taohe River in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of Mongolian steppe. A comprehensive archaeological survey, using advanced technologies, has concluded that the walls built by the Ming dynasty measure 8,850 km (5,500 mi).
This is made up of 6,259 km (3,889 mi) sections of actual wall, 359 km (223 mi) of trenches and 2,232 km (1,387 mi) of natural defensive barriers such as hills and rivers. Another archaeological survey found that the entire wall with all of its branches measures out to be 21,196 km (13,171 mi). Today, the defensive system of the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history..source (wikipedia)
A great China wall is 13,000 mile long .its way through the country side of China with a history almost as long and serpentine because the structure. The China wall started as several walls of rammed earth built by feudal states individually. During the CHUNQIU period to guard against nomadic raiders north of china and every other. When emperor QIN SHI HUANG unified he states in 221 BCE, the Tibetan Plateau and pacific ocean became natural barriers. but the area of north mountains remained defenseless to MONGOL, TURKISH, and XIONGNU invasions.
To defend, the emperor extended the walls built by his predecessors.
As the structures grew from LINTAO in the west to Liaodong in the east, they collectively become known as the Long Wall. To complete the work, the Emperor engaged soldiers and common people, not always voluntarily of the many thousands of builders recorded during the QIN dynasty. some were forcefully and others were criminals. Under the HAN dynasty, the wall grew longer still, reaching 3700 miles, And spanning from Dunhang to the Bohai sea.
Forced labor continued under the HAN Emperor Han-wudi, and therefore the walls reputation grew into a notorious place of suffering. Poems & legends tells that laborers buried in nearby combined graves and even in the wall itself, but no human have been found inside. That is indicate that many workers died from hunger , accidents and exhaustion. The wall was formidable but not invincible. Both GENGHIS and his son KHUBLAI KHAN managed to surmount the wall during the Mongle invasion of the 13th centaury .
after the Ming controlled in 1368, they began to refortify and further combine the wall using bricks and stone from regional kilns. Averaging hight 23 feet & 21 feet wide, the walls 5500 miles were punctuated by watchtowers. When raiders were indicating fire and smoke signals passing between towers until reinforcements arrived. Small openings along the wall let arches fire on invaders, while large ones were used to drop stones and more.
But when this new & improved wall was not enough. Northern Manchu clans overthrew the Ming to establish the Qing Dynasty in 1644, incorporating Magnolia as well, thus for the second time China was ruled by the very people the wall had tried to keep out.
during world war 2.
Empires borders now extending ahead of the Great Wall, the fortification lost their purpose. Without normal support, the wall fell to bad condition, ram earth craggy, while brick and stone were plundered for building materials but its job wasn’t finished during world war 2. china used sections for defense against Japanese invasion, and a few parts are still rumored to be used for training . But the walls main purpose today is cultural. As one of the most important man-made structures on earth, it had been granted UNESCCO world heritage status in 1987.
Originally built to keep people of China. The great wall now welcomes many visitors annually . It’s also often claimed as the only man-made structure visible from space. unfortunately, that`s not all true. in low earth orbit,sorts of structures, like bridges, highways and airports are visible, and the great wall is only hardly visiable. and therefore the Chinese Wall is merely barely discernible . from the moon , it doesn’t stand a chance.this remarkable monument to human achievement.